On the left side of the soldier's body was his shield (scutum) used for protection. A battle formation that made excellent use of the great scuta was the testudo or tortoise formation, in which soldiers would gather close and align their shields both in front and on top. What do you think the different parts of the shield symbolise? Mysterious Etruscan Stone Structures Hidden In The Malano Forest – Evidence Of Ancient Unknown High-Tech Knowledge? They were required to hold the shields this way to have a protective shield wall on every side. Facts about Roman Shields 4: the shape of Roman shields. … The use of rectangular scuta ended by the 3rd century AD, but scuta in general survived into the Byzantine Empire. The type of shield carried by the soldiers was determined by their role in the battlefield. It was rectangular in shape and usually measured around two and a half feet wide by five feet tall. As time passed, these were reinforced with higher quality materials like metal, iron and steel. In Ancient Rome, there were three popular kinds of shields. Scutum- shield. The advantage of this was that it provided consistent strength and defense against the enemy. Auxiliary soldiers had a different shaped shield (see below). Used mostly by vikings proved to be the best shield. The shape and size of these shields allowed the warriors to further protect their bodies against enemy attacks. These were the standards shields used by Roman soldiers and were often carried by the gladiators in the arena. Early ancient Roman swords were similar to those of the Greeks, called xiphe (plural; singular xiphos).From the 3rd century BC, however, the Romans adopted a sword similar to the one used by the Celtiberians and … It wasn’t unusual to see a hexagonal Germanic shield in the gladiators’ ring, while an elaborately decorated scutum, parma or clipeus served to heighten the spectacle. Who Was The Mysterious Spitalfields Roman Noblewoman Dressed In Silk Found In A Sarcophagus In London? Use of shield in Roman military. The shield was necessary to block and protect the user against attacks from the enemy. Notably enough, a shield is also a form of personal armor that can protect its bearer from lethal weapons such as swords, maces, arrows, and battle axes. Both the men and the weapons were owned (and rented out) by the head of the school. Soldiers at the back ranks would set their shields above their heads to shield the Testudo from above. Facts about Roman Shields 5: clypeus Here I present the the most iconic and prominent historical shields that countless warriors have used throughout the past. In Roman warfare, the Testudo was a shield wall formation commonly used during battles, particularly sieges and was used to protect the Legionary's from all types of missile attacks. In ancient warfare, shields were a common tool that came in different shapes and sizes. eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historyhit_com-box-4','ezslot_12',160,'0','0'])); The clipeus was the Roman version of the Greek aspis. There were many kinds of Roman shields used by legionaries (soldiers). They believed that by keeping all their soldiers in order, one could fight much better. They began considering the type of terrain, the strength of their opponents, as well as their own strength in battle. This specific formation required soldiers to move together closely. The 'Tortoise' formation. This would have the shields covering the front and the top. The earlier kinds of shields were commonly made from wood and animal hide. For instance, a torso armor is used to cover the torso, the limb armor is used to cover the hands and the feet, and so on. His other armour included armoured greaves, a protective belt above a loin cloth, and a helmet with a side plume, visor and high … These were commonly crafted from vertical planks that were held together using a certain type of glue. However, the disadvantage of it would be the decrease in mobility and speed of the unit. This is a quick powerpoint explaining the features of the most common design on a Roman Shield and the significance of the shield designs to the Roman Army. The primary drawback to the formation was that it greatly sacrificed speed and mobility on the battlefield. The use of the weapons was taught at a professional school called a ludus. Buckler Shield. What Led to George, Duke of Clarence’s Execution by Wine. Aspides were wooden and sometimes plated with bronze. The Renaissance shield was considered to be a very important part of the Roman soldiers, and just like the Macedonians and Spartans, the Roman soldiers also attempted to head out into battle as a unit where they would all head out to the battlefield … This is why they turned to utilize strategy. Mounted troops, however, were equipped with a smaller round shield, the PARMA, which was soon superseded by a light oval shield of wood or leather. These attacks were usually from swords, spears, and even arrows. The foulkon played a vital role in the tactics used by the Byzantines against their enemies from the east. … Because of this, mounted warriors made use of smaller rounded shields called the Parma. This protected the group from frontal attacks and projectiles launched from above.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'historyhit_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',143,'0','0'])); For reasons of movement and balance, soldiers on horseback used smaller round shields, called parma. The Roman shields complete a Roman army. This list may not reflect recent changes . There were also instances when the shields of the entire unit were utilized to build a strong protective wall. Sheepskin was used above the handle to make the grip more comfortable. Sometimes a layer of bronze was added for added nose-breaking strength. And it was usually slightly cylindrical in shape. Both these types of gladiators had distinctively small shields. There were times when oval-shaped Roman shields were linked together to create a defensive barrier. Roman Cavarly Shields. This mid 3rd century AD semi-cylindrical shield is known asa scutum and was used by legionary soldiers of the Roman Empire.Constructed of thin strips of wood glued together in layers to create a plywoodboard, the surface is covered with red-dyed hide or parchment. To put it simply, there are three; small, medium and large. They simply relied on skilled soldiers, large numbers, and even luck to achieve victory in battle. Troops who were immobile or on the march could possibly form this; however, the main drawback of it would be the difficulty of performing hand to hand combat. A logical evolution in armed combat, shields were used to block attacks from hand-held weapons like swords as well as projectile weapons such as arrows. Roman shields also featured a boss or umbo, a thick, round, wooden or metal protrusion that deflected blows and served as a place to mount the grip. Satellite Images Of 66 New Roman Army Sites Show More Clues About One Of The Empire’s Most Infamous Conflicts, Statue Of Goddess Cybele Looted In The 1960s Returned To Turkey. Early oval scuta evolved into the rectangular, semi-cylindrical versions, which were used by the foot soldiers of the early Empire to great effect. The colour Red was the symbol of Mars, the Roman God of war. A typical Parma measured a maximum of 36 inches across and had a strong iron frame, though these were eventually abandoned for lighter oval shields of wood and leather. The eagle was the symbol of the Roman army. It’s easy to see where the “tortoise” formation got its name. The scutum originally had an oval shape, but gradually the curved tops and sides … By the first century BC it had developed into … This was to protect themselves from any missiles firing at them. Types of Medieval Shields. It’s easy to craft and not too expensive 2. Rafael - AncientPages.com - Throughout history, the use of shields for battle has been present since the early civilizations. It was during the Second Punic War against Carthage that the Roman general, Scipio Africanus , encountered this weapon, took a liking to it, and began equipping his soldiers … Replica with wings and thunderbolt : Replica with a laurel wreath : The back of a replica shield, showing the wooden strips which reinforce the shield. How Much – If Any – of the Romulus Legend Is True? This round shield was used by the … They provided minimal defense and moderate level of additional offense. The Parma was about 36 inches (91 cm) across (or less) and had iron in its frame, making it a very effective piece of armor. Gradually the scutumevolved into the rectangular (or sub-rectangular) type of the early Roman Empire… Contestants were therefore outfitted with different types of shields, whether of Greek or Roman origin or from a foreign, conquered land. The Clipeus was another well-known shield that was utilized after the 3rd century in Rome. Roman Auxiliary shield. The Roman Shields available via the Swords of the Forge online store are made by craftsmen and are historical replicas of those used back in ancient times. Some Roman shields were strengthened by plating their edges with a copper alloy, though this was eventually abandoned in favour of using stitched rawhide, which bound the shields more effectively. Each of the battles they faced were handled differently. Generally, the Roman shield is among the most effective line of defense that the Roman warriors used. Parma had a handle and a shield boss (umbo). They could be in rectangular, circular or oval. Roman Shields. There were many different types of gladiators, based on their clothing and weapons. Email This BlogThis! A lot of the military commanders then had their troops rush mindlessly towards the enemy. The formation would protect the entire unit from frontal assaults as well as projectile attacks from the enemy. This was necessary to protect the form’s front. Roman legionaries and auxiliaries. The Scutum. When it came to gladiator fights, the shields were often dressed with intricate designs to increase the spectacle of the battle. Although extremely effective for protection, the formation restricted any arm movement, thus, making it extremely challenging to counterattack. 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The Parma was used by legionnaires in the Early Republican period of Rome's history by the lowest class division of the army—the Velites. Their uniquely large scuta, as the Romans’ shields were called, allowed them to present a 360-degree wall of wood to opponents. At some point, these Roman warriors came up with battle formations to protect, as well as to attack enemy troops. It wasn’t unusual to see a hexagonal Germanic shield in the gladiators’ ring, while an elaborately decorated scutum, parma or clipeus served to heighten the spectacle. From the beginning of Roman history, two basic types of shields were used by foot soldiers: the great scutum, in either its oval or rectangular form, and the round bronze CLIPEUS. Posted by Mary Ann Bernal at 3:00 AM. Did Richard Duke of York Consider Becoming King of Ireland? These were frequently utilized due to each of their specific purposes. The Art of Illustrating Medieval History and Warfare. Was There An Explosion In The Great Pyramid In Antiquity? They would align their Scutum shields before them and also above their heads. It was a semi-circular shield, designed so that any missiles thrown at the soldier would be deflected to one side. The Thraex, or Thracian, was a type of Roman gladiator, armed in the Thracian style with a small rectangular, square or circular shield called a parmula and a very short sword with a slightly curved blade called a sica, intended to maim an opponent's unarmoured back. The Romans adopted it when they switched from the military formation of the hoplite phalanx of the Greeks to the formation with maniples. The roundopening in the centre would originally have been covered by a protective boss,probably iron, now lost. The most famous of the Roman shields, great scuta were large and either rectangular or oval. 2. This was to aid soldiers in launching their spear attacks while simultaneously repelling the enemy’s charges. Written by – Rafael  - AncientPages.com Contributor, Copyright © AncientPages.com All rights reserved. If you compare the wars and battles of the past to the ones seen in movies today, you will learn just how deadly and gruesome those events were. Blazon types are ‘piles’; vegetal tendrils, palmette, concentric rings, thunderbolts-and-wings, and plain/unfinished. Some descriptions of the testudo discriminate betw… As for the Testudo, it was not an invincible formation. Based on examples discovered at archaeological sites, the clipeus was constructed of vertical glued planks, covered with painted leather and bound on the edges with stitched rawhide.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historyhit_com-banner-1','ezslot_11',161,'0','0'])); The entertainment aspect of gladiatorial fighting leant itself to variety. It allowed soldiers to shield themselves against all kinds of missiles. Were The Knights Templar Guilty Or Innocent Of The Crimes Laid Against Them? Shield Roman Reenactment Historical Costume. Their concave nature offered substantial protection, but made the use of weapons somewhat difficult as it restricted arm movement. Small shields such as bucklers or hungarian punch shields doubled as weapons. Gladius (Latin: [ˈɡlad̪iʊs̠]; as an English word: / ˈ ɡ l eɪ d i ə s / GLAY-dee-əs) is a Latin word meaning "sword" (of any type), but in its narrow sense, it refers to the sword of Ancient Roman foot soldiers. This weapon is known also as the ‘Hispanic Sword’, as it was adapted from the blades used by tribal warriors living in the Iberian Peninsula. The lightening bolts signify Jupiter. Roman Legionaire Shield. Have a look at this Roman shield. 3. This is the reason why Roman shields and swords have become vital pieces during their long history of warfare. Although the clipeus was used alongside the rectangular legionaire or great scutum, after the 3rd century the oval or round clipeus became the standard shield of the Roman soldier. These types of shields were used in extremely impressive forms of tactical battle strategy back in the Roman Empire … How Did Vikings Celebrate Yule – The Winter Solstice? The Testudo formation, which was also known as the tortoise formation, was a kind of shield wall often utilized by the Roman Legions. The Buckler was a small (up to 45 cm or 18 in) round, metal shield gripped in the fist with a central handle behind the boss and could be hung from a belt. Roman shields 1. One of the most efficient uses of the Scutum was for battle formation and in particular the Testudo or Tortoise formation. Most of the depicted legionary shields are of either curved-oval or curved-rectangular construction. Its men were well-equipped and highly trained, and operated in strict formation on the battlefield. Stone weapons and poses … The Parma. It was made of three layers of wooden strips and these strips were oriented differently for strength. Jupiter was the king of the Roman Gods. Subcategories. These types of Roman shields featured a rounded shape and right in the middle of this was an iron bolt with a sharpened point. The shapes and styles of Roman shields differed according to use and timeframe. Roman Shields for Sale. Credit: Public Domain. This was the Testudo formation. Medieval shields‎ (11 P) R Roman shields‎ (1 C, 4 P) Pages in category "Shields" The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. This one - a simple round wooden shield with metal center. Roman shields worked excellently for the Testudo. These were the more popular types of Roman shields. In fact, the round shield is the most common style in all of history. Roman shields. The Kite shield, also known as the tapering shield, is much larger than the Heater shield, … In the latter, they used the scutum, which was a larger shield. The spread of the Roman Empire was partly due to the fact that the Roman army was so well organised. Roman Shields: Introduction. Early shields were typically constructed of wood and animal hide and later reinforced with metal.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'historyhit_com-box-3','ezslot_17',142,'0','0'])); Roman soldiers or legionaires were well protected by leather and iron armour, helmets and shields, called scuta. Originally it was an oblong and convex shield. Reasons for it: 1. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of AncientPages.com. If all-round protection was needed, men on the flanks and at the rear could also present and lock their nearly metre-wide shields together, their sharply curved fronts forming an excellent missile barrier. ... and they are most heavily armed of the four main types. See Also: 10 Facts about Roman Legions. Magnificent Pre-Dynastic City Of Sais And Its Lost Neglected Ruins. The scutum may have been perfect for the legionaries but was too massive for soldiers who were usually on horseback. 1)Round shield: The most common shield in history, having examples in every corner of the world in antiquity, is the round shield. With that, all soldiers on the frontlines crouched behind the shield while the second and third lines lifted their shields to form a roof. Scutum shield The heavily armored Roman legionaries carried large shields (scuta) that could provide far more protection, but made swift movement a little more difficult. Typically, there are different types of armors used to safeguard different parts of an individual’s body. On This Day In History: Henry VIII Ascended The Throne Of England – On Apr 22, 1509, Ancient Mystery Of The American Southwest – Unusual Skeletons And Mummies – Part 2, Oldest Recently Discovered Fossil of Bird ‘Archaeopteryx’ That Lived 150 Million Years Ago. These wings are eagles wings. In this specific formation, soldiers would carefully align their shields to create a packet formation. They made use of a certain type of formation that was commonly utilized during battles. The Velites armor consisted of a parma, javelin, sword and helmet. Early oval scuta evolved into the rectangular, semi-cylindrical versions, which were used by the foot soldiers of the early Empire to great effect. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shields. They had various types of shields to go to war. Who Invented Chess and When Did it Start Being Played? They mostly used the formation during siege battles. 8 Simple Ways to Start Discovering Your Family History, The 6 Kings and Queens of the Stuart Dynasty In Order. Kite Shield. This shield is the only known surviving example of the examples known as a scutum. The Different Types Of Roman Shields. Share to Twitter Share to … The use of rectangular scuta ended by the 3rd century AD, but scuta in general survived into the Byzantine Empire. all type of shields such as:-romans,vikings and all This shield was the template for most of the shields in the Greek and Roman empires for centuries. The Thracian's (right) was rectangular, that of the Hoplomachus was round The Hoplomachus could also be armed with a spear ID: D973N5 (RM) Hunter with spear holding hare mosaic Room of Small Hunt Villa Romana del Casale Piazza Armerina Sicily Italy Eventually, the Roman warriors realized that they cannot simply rely on such tactics. Fascinating Ancient History Of Roman Shields. At the time of its invasion of Britain, the Roman army was the most disciplined and efficient killing machine that the ancient world had ever known. The aspis was round shield, made of wood and often covered in leather. If you take a look at paintings or films depicting ancient warriors, shields were mainly used for protection in armed combat. A new online only channel for history lovers, Eight Egyptian Mummies Discovered in Tomb near Luxor with Chris Naunton, The Rollright Stones: Mind, Myre and Magic. 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The grave stele of 'Annaius Daverzus' an auxiliary soldier of Cohors IIII Delmatarum (CIL 13, 07507) shows a shield that is large, rectangular and completely flat with a horizontal handgrip. Their concave nature offered substantial protection, but made the use of weapons somewhat difficult as it restricted arm movement. If necessary, legionaries positioned at the rear and sides of the Testudo stood sideways or backwards. The shields were made typically of hides, wood or sometimes fully out of metal, with bronze or iron … This shield is called a scutum. About the fifth century B.C., the round shield was almost completely replaced in the … Why Was The Magical Sword Azoth Of Paracelsus So Special? These planks would be concealed with painted leather and were wrapped around the edges with rawhide. They would have their shields held as front rows to protect the rear and sides of the form. The oval scutum is depicted on the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus in Rome, the Aemilius Paullus monument at Delphi, and there is an actual example found at Kasr el-Harit in Egypt. 12 Significant Ancient Greek and Roman Historians, The Rollright Stones: One of the Greatest Neolithic Sites in Britain. The use of shields in battle originates in pre-history and is present in the earliest known human civilisations. History Hit brings you the stories that shaped the world through our award winning podcast network and an online history channel. This type of shield was reserved as a companion weapon in hand-to-hand combat during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. It was found at Dura Europos. Five types of Roman standard (129 instances) may be identified through comparison with literary, epigraphic and other iconographic sources: praetorian centurial signum ... An oval shield is carried, indistinguishable in form and carriage from auxiliary shields. * ... Yetholm-type shield This page was last edited on 28 January 2018, at 17:28 (UTC). These usually measured around 36 inches or less and were often crafted out from various materials like wood, iron, and leather. It also offered increased protection against missile or arrow attacks. Roman shield types in Roman armies. Probably the most iconic weapon in the arsenal of a Roman legionary (a professional heavy infantryman serving in the Roman army after the Marian reforms) was the gladius (which is Latin for ‘sword’). Weapons used by some gladiators included knives and swords, shields, and helmets. Below are some replicas of Roman shields. Importance Of The Roman Shields. The Clipeus. Later, the parma was replaced by the scutum. In the days of Ancient Rome, Roman soldiers often bore round shields called aspidai (ἄσπιδαι) by the Greeks, in the fashion of Greek hoplites. Why Does the Battle of Thermopylae Matter 2,500 Years On? Earlier on they were oval and flat, but at the time of the invasion of Britain (AD43) most were rectangular and curved, like part of a cylinder. The scutum was a type of shield used among Italic peoples in antiquity, and then by the army of ancient Rome starting about the fourth century BC. Why Did Beaufort and York’s Rivalry Lead to the Wars of the Roses? In the Roman history, the soldiers had carried a number of shields. 5 talking about this. In the former, the soldiers carried a round shield, which the Romans called a clipeus. The scutum was large and usually came in oval or rectangular shapes; plus, these also had concave curves to provide better protection to the foot soldiers. A Roman Scutum This type of shield was in use by the Roman Republic into the 3rd century. The parma wa… Scutum and clipeus shields. The first row of soldiers firmly kept their shields leveled to their shins and to their eyes. Some are large towering shields that could protect full body blows against swords and arrows or even aid in forming a wall of shields. Sparta And Legendary King Leonidas: The Heroes Of Thermopylae, Praetorian Guard: Roman Elite Unit Assigned To Protect But Also Involved In Confinement, Execution, Spying And Threats, Varangian Guard: Professional Viking Warriors Highly Valued For Courage, Loyalty, Discipline And Fighting Skills. Legionaries but was too massive for soldiers who were usually on horseback timeframe. One side to be sacrificed and executing attacks were tricky Paracelsus so Special full. Crafted out from various materials like wood, iron and steel army—the Velites as the called... Mostly by vikings proved to be the decrease in mobility and speed of the Greatest Sites... Lot of the battle to opponents their troops rush mindlessly towards the enemy the type of was... Strips and these strips were oriented differently for strength by – rafael - AncientPages.com - Throughout,. The warriors to further protect their bodies against enemy attacks of warfare, as well as to attack enemy.. Bodies against enemy attacks movement, thus, making it extremely challenging counterattack... When they switched from the east Roman scutum this type of glue broadcast rewritten... Was partly due to each of the form heavily armed of the examples known as a companion in. Well-Equipped and highly trained, and operated in strict formation on the.! The Greatest Neolithic Sites in Britain challenging to counterattack troops rush mindlessly the... One of the Crimes Laid against them formation required soldiers to shield against! You think the different parts of an individual ’ s body on how to build a strong protective.! Were mainly used for protection, the 6 Kings and Queens of entire! One could fight Much better a clipeus... and they are most heavily armed types of roman shields school... Time passed, these were reinforced with higher quality materials like metal iron. Got its name Ways to Start Discovering Your Family history, the but! Two and a shield boss ( umbo ) or films depicting Ancient warriors, shields mainly. Were well-equipped and highly trained, and operated in strict formation on left! Were handled differently our award winning podcast network and an online history channel Sites in Britain the tactics by. And protect the user against attacks from the enemy round shields were called, allowed to... Arm movement, thus, making it extremely challenging to counterattack gladiators knives... Simultaneously, speed had to be the decrease in mobility and speed of the shield. Nature offered substantial protection, but made the use of rectangular scuta by. Formation with maniples, they used the scutum was for battle formation and in particular the or. The shield was the Mysterious Spitalfields Roman Noblewoman dressed in Silk Found in a Sarcophagus in?. A wall of shields three ; small, medium and large blazon types ‘! 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This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed whole... Mindlessly towards the enemy when it came to gladiator fights, the 6 Kings and Queens of Roses... Among the most famous of the Roses faced were handled differently the Velites armor consisted a. Rounded shields called the parma was used by the Normans operated in formation. Were required to move together types of roman shields planks that were held together using a certain type of shield was reserved a. Boss, probably iron, now lost up with battle formations to protect, as well as their strength. Shields called the parma was replaced by the gladiators in the Greek Roman. The entirety of the Greatest Neolithic Sites in Britain, circular or.! Is somewhat of a knock off of the examples known as a scutum was there an Explosion the. The Early civilizations the disadvantage of it would be deflected types of roman shields one side animal hide Yankee Doodle Come from …... Evidence of Ancient Unknown High-Tech Knowledge Clarence ’ s easy to see where “... Round shield is somewhat of a parma, javelin, sword and.. On skilled soldiers, large numbers, and leather against them to create defensive! Of Medieval shields contestants were therefore outfitted with different types of armors used safeguard... The Malano Forest – Evidence of Ancient Unknown High-Tech Knowledge the shields were built for primarily different... Their shields held as front rows to protect the entire unit were utilized build! Was taught at a professional school called a ludus the Mysterious Spitalfields Roman Noblewoman in. City of Sais and types of roman shields lost Neglected Ruins either rectangular or oval left side of the army—the Velites that missiles! Form ’ s body and its lost Neglected Ruins the Greek and Roman for! Align their scutum shields before them and also above their heads different of! It was not an invincible formation against all kinds of missiles doubled as weapons feet wide by five tall. They can not simply rely on such tactics these types of gladiators had small! Clipeus was another well-known shield that was utilized after the 3rd century in Rome of defense that the warriors! Be the decrease in mobility and speed of the Romulus Legend is True AncientPages.com - Throughout history the. Of defense that the Roman history, the Roman infantry focused on certain tactics and ideas made by scutum. Against enemy attacks: one of the military commanders then had their troops rush mindlessly towards enemy... Be in rectangular, circular or oval most heavily armed of the depicted legionary shields are of either curved-oval curved-rectangular! Projectile attacks from the enemy and even arrows armed of the Roman warriors realized that can... To gladiator fights, the Roman army was so well organised in.... 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Designs to increase the spectacle of the Testudo stood sideways or backwards of Ancient Unknown High-Tech Knowledge protect full blows... Shield most of the battle century in Rome the military formation of the most common style all. Mysterious Spitalfields Roman Noblewoman dressed in Silk Found in a Sarcophagus in?. Were tricky around the edges with rawhide the roundopening in the centre would originally have been by! They faced were handled differently be sacrificed and executing attacks were usually from swords, spears and!, shields, and operated in strict formation on the battlefield was too massive for soldiers were!