This was the first encyclical of his pontificate and stressed many of the themes which would guide his future papacy. So far, indeed, from opposing these she is now, as she ever has been, hostile alone to indolence and sloth, and earnestly wishes that the talents of men may bear more and more abundant fruit by cultivation and exercise. The sovereignty of the people, however, and this without any reference to God, is held to reside in the multitude; which is doubtless a doctrine exceedingly well calculated to flatter and to inflame many passions, but which lacks all reasonable proof, and all power of insuring public safety and preserving order. In their uncertain and toilsome journey to the everlasting city all see that they have safe guides and helpers on their way, and are conscious that others have charge to protect their persons alike and their possessions, and to obtain or preserve for them everything essential for their present life. Furthermore, it is in general fitting and salutary that Catholics should extend their efforts beyond this restricted sphere, and give their attention to national politics. Jesus Christ has Himself given command that what is Caesar's is to be rendered to Caesar, and that what belongs to God is to be rendered to God. Brock, Michael L., "Pope Leo XIII: a Critique of the Modern World", Pope Leo XIII, "Immortale Dei", §3, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1 November 1885. Nor is there any reason why any one should accuse the Church of being wanting in gentleness of action or largeness of view, or of being opposed to real and lawful liberty. I may not deal more severely according to the power which the Lord bath given me, unto edification and not unto destruction. Still the direct care of religion has not been committed to the state but to the Church, which is independent of the State. Whatever, therefore in things human is of a sacred character, whatever belongs either of its own nature or by reason of the end to which it is referred, to the salvation of souls, or to the worship of God, is subject to the power and judgment of the Church. For the only-begotten Son of God established on earth a society which is called the Church, and to it He handed over the exalted and divine office which He had received from His Father, to be continued through the ages to come. 34. . Hence, there are limits set to the duty of civil allegiance. It victoriously rolled back the tide of Mohammedan conquest; retained the headship of civilization; stood forth in the front rank as the leader and teacher of all, in every branch of national culture; bestowed on the world the gift of true and many-sided liberty; and most wisely founded very numerous institutions for the solace of human suffering. IMMORTALE DEI Encyclical letter of Pope leo xiii, issued Nov. 1, 1885; frequently entitled in English "The Christian Constitution of States," after a phrase from the final paragraph. . In such organization of the State there is nothing that can be thought to infringe upon the dignity of rulers, and nothing unbecoming them; nay, so far from degrading the sovereign power in its due rights, it adds to it permanence and luster. [7], Therefore, all authority ultimately derives from God. The online etymology dictionary is the internet's go-to source for quick and reliable accounts of the origin and history of English words, phrases, and idioms. In very truth, Jesus Christ gave to His Apostles unrestrained authority in regard to things sacred, together with the genuine and most true power of making laws, as also with the twofold right of judging and of punishing, which flow from that power. IMMORTALE DEI On the Christian Constitution of States Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII promulgated on November 1, 1885. The drawing up of laws, the administration of State affairs, the godless education of youth, the spoliation and suppression of religious orders, the overthrow of the temporal power of the Roman Pontiff, all alike aim to this one end-to paralyse the action of Christian institutions, to cramp to the utmost the freedom of the Catholic Church, and to curtail her ever single prerogative. On the contrary, it is the fountain-head and origin of many evils. ;] The authority of God is passed over in silence, just as if there were no God; or as if He cared nothing for human society; or as if men, whether in their individual capacity or bound together in social relations, owed nothing to God; or as if there could be a government of which the whole origin and power and authority did not reside in God Himself. 19. Even in physical things, albeit of a lower order, the Almighty has so combined the forces and springs of nature with tempered action and wondrous harmony that no one of them clashes with any other, and all of them most fitly and aptly work together for the great purpose of the universe. Furthermore, domestic society acquires that firmness and solidity so needful to it from the holiness of marriage, one and indissoluble, wherein the rights and duties of husband and wife are controlled with wise justice and equity; due honour is assured to the woman; the authority of the husband is conformed to the pattern afforded by the authority of God; the power of the father is tempered by a due regard for the dignity of the mother and her offspring; and the best possible provision is made for the guardianship, welfare, and education of the children. Doctrines such as these, which cannot be approved by human reason, and most seriously affect the whole civil order, Our predecessors the Roman Pontiffs (well aware of what their apostolic office required of them) have never allowed to pass uncondemned. . Whatever is to be ranged under the civil and political order is rightly subject to the civil authority. All this, though so reasonable and full of counsel, finds little favour nowadays when States not only refuse to conform to the rules of Christian wisdom, but seem even anxious to recede from them further and further on each successive day. As regards opinion, whatever the Roman Pontiffs have hitherto taught, or shall hereafter teach, must be held with a firm grasp of mind, and, so often as occasion requires, must be openly professed. "(9) "Feed My lambs, feed My sheep. She never objects to search being made for things that minister to the refinements and comforts of life. As a consequence, the State, constituted as it is, is clearly bound to act up to the manifold and weighty duties linking it to God, by the public profession of religion. "Church and State", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Immortale_Dei&oldid=993460526, Documents of the Catholic Social Teaching tradition, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with no article parameter, Articles incorporating text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with no article parameter, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 18:53. [5], Leo bases his philosophy of society on Aquinas's theory of natural law. How to say dei in Latin? These remain ever one and the same, and are no less unchangeable than nature itself. In Immortale Dei, Nov 1, 1885, Leo XIII said: The Church of Christ is the true and sole teacher of virtue and guardian of morals. That duty, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, rests on nature itself and the sanctions of religion. 35. Whatever, therefore, is opposed to virtue and truth may not rightly be brought temptingly before the eye of man, much less sanctioned by the favor and protection of the law. 49. Epist. 40. (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /im.morˈta.lis/, [im.mɔrˈt̪aː.lis] Women thou dost subject to their husbands in chaste and faithful obedience, not for the gratifying of their lust, but for bringing forth children, and for having a share in the family concerns. "(6) Consequently, as Jesus Christ came into the world that men "might have life and have it more abundantly,"(7) so also has the Church for its aim and end the eternal salvation of souls, and hence it is so constituted as to open wide its arms to all mankind, unhampered by any limit of either time or place. et Episcopos metrop. "The right to rule is not necessarily bound up with any special mode of government. In like manner it is to be understood that the Church no less than the State itself is a society perfect in its own nature and its own right, and that those who exercise sovereignty ought not so to act as to compel the Church to become subservient or subject to them, or to hamper her liberty in the management of her own affairs, or to despoil her in any way of the other privileges conferred upon her by Jesus Christ. She will always encourage and promote, as she does in other branches of knowledge, all study occupied with the investigation of nature. He also exhorts the faithful to take a prudent part in public affairs for the common good. Since, then, upon this depends the full and perfect happiness of mankind, the securing of this end should be of all imaginable interests the most urgent. ), from assimilated form of in-"not, opposite of" (see in-(1)) + mortalis "mortal" (from PIE root *mer-"to rub away, harm," also "to die" and forming words referring to death and to beings subject to death). Man's natural instinct moves him to live in civil society, for he cannot, if dwelling apart, provide himself with the necessary requirements of life, nor procure the means of developing his mental and moral faculties. This, then, is the teaching of the Catholic Church concerning the constitution and government of the State. 19. Secondly, action may relate to private and domestic matters, or to matters public. So, too, is it a sin in the State not to have care for religion, as a something beyond its scope, or as of no practical benefit ... All who rule, therefore, should hold in honour the holy name of God, and one of their chief duties must be to favour religion, to protect it, to shield it under the credit and sanction of the laws, and neither to organize nor enact any measures that may compromise its safety. 30, n. 63 (PL 32, 1336), sfn error: no target: CITEREFImmortale_Dei_§47 (. 28. Nevertheless, since truth when brought to light is wont, of its own nature, to spread itself far and wide, and gradually take possession of the minds of men, We, moved by the great and holy duty of Our apostolic mission to all nations, speak, as We are bound to do, with freedom. Latin words for immortal include immortalis, immortal, inmortalis, ambroscus, conclamatus and ambrosius. "(4) To cast aside obedience, and by popular violence to incite to revolt, is therefore treason, not against man only, but against God. A State from which religion is banished can never be well regulated; and already perhaps more than is desirable is known of the nature and tendency of the so-called civil philosophy of life and morals. 22. 46. 30. 20. She it is who preserves in their purity the principles from which duties flow, and, by setting forth most urgent reasons for virtuous life, bids us not only to turn away from wicked deeds, but even to curb all movements of the mind that are opposed to reason, even though they be not carried out in action. Therefore, when it is said that the Church is hostile to modern political regimes and that she repudiates the discoveries of modern research, the charge is a ridiculous and groundless calumny. The State is not competent to make laws in matter of religion, nor may it interfere with the rights of the Church. EWTN is a global, Catholic Television, Catholic Radio, and Catholic News Network that provides catholic programming and news coverage from around the world. Especially with reference to the so-called "liberties" which are so greatly coveted in these days, all must stand by the judgment of the apostolic see, and have the same mind. In a society grounded upon such maxims all government is nothing more nor less than the will of the people, and the people, being under the power of itself alone, is alone its own ruler. It is a reaffirmation of ecclesiastical rights in which Leo deplored what he saw as a modern tendency to install in society the supremacy of man to the exclusion of God. Immortale Dei On the Christian Constitution of States. Models of loyalty to their rulers, submissive, so far as was permitted, to the sovereign power, they shed around them on every side a halo of sanctity; they strove to be helpful to their brethren, and to attract others to the wisdom of Jesus Christ, yet were bravely ready to withdraw from public life, nay, even to lay down their life, if they could not without loss of virtue retain honours, dignities, and offices. The Church is not a true, perfect, and wholly independent society, possessing in its own unchanging rights conferred upon it by its divine Founder; but it is for the civil power to determine what are the rights of the Church, and the limits within which it may use them. Liberty is a power perfecting man, and hence should have truth and goodness for its object. Translate Immortale Dei in English online and download now our free translator to use any time at no charge. "(26) So that the Christian faith, when once it became lawful to make public profession of the Gospel, appeared in most of the cities of Europe, not like an infant crying in its cradle, but already grown up and full of vigour. One not subject to death. en For, recognizing the errors of Abelard, who when he "speaks of the Trinity savors of Arius; when of grace, of Pelagius; when of the person of Christ, of Nestorious,"[36] "who . 1885: IMMORTALE DEI (the Christian Constitution of States), November 1. If, therefore, they have hitherto been dissensions, let them henceforth be gladly buried in oblivion. However, it may in some places be true that, for most urgent and just reasons, it is by no means expedient for Catholics to engage in public affairs or to take an active part in politics. On the question of the separation of Church and State the same Pontiff writes as follows: "Nor can We hope for happier results either for religion or for the civil government from the wishes of those who desire that the Church be separated from the State, and the concord between the secular and ecclesiastical authority be dissolved. "(15) Hence, it is the Church, and not the State, that is to be man's guide to heaven. But as no society can hold together unless someone be over all, directing all to strive earnestly for the common good, every civilized community must have a ruling authority, and this authority, no less than society itself, has its source in nature, and has consequently God for its author. Used of cells in culture. He should take an in… For that should be regarded in the light of an ever-changeless law which No of Chartres wrote to Pope Paschal II: "When kingdom and priesthood are at one, in complete accord, the world is well ruled, and the Church flourishes, and brings forth abundant fruit. Hence, it is distinguished and differs from civil society, and, what is of highest moment, it is a society chartered as of right divine, perfect in its nature and in its title, to possess in itself and by itself, through the will and loving kindness of its Founder, all needful provision for its maintenance and action. It is unsure that the civil liberty of every form of worship, and the full power given to all of openly and publicly manifesting whatsoever opinions and thoughts, lead to the more ready corruption of the minds and morals of the people, and to the spread of the plague of religious indifference. ; See Labbeus, Collect. This would tend also to the injury of the Christian religion, forasmuch as those would come into power who are badly disposed toward the Church, and those who are willing to befriend her would be deprived of all influence. He believed social contract theories dangerous, as fostering authoritarianism. Then it was that the power and divine virtue of Christian wisdom had diffused itself throughout the laws, institutions, and morals of the people, permeating all ranks and relations of civil society. But, as all truth must necessarily proceed from God, the Church recognizes in all truth that is reached by research a trace of the divine intelligence. De moribus ecclesiae, 1, cap. There was once a time when States were governed by the philosophy of the Gospel. … But, as no society can hold together unless some one be over all, directing all to strive earnestly for the common good, every body politic must have a ruling authority, and this authority, no less than society itself, has its source in nature, and has, consequently, God for its Author. "The mighty shall be mightily tormented. 238, to Pope Paschal II (PL 162, 246B). Then, too, the religion instituted by Jesus Christ, established firmly in befitting dignity, flourished everywhere, by the favour of princes and the legitimate protection of magistrates; and Church and State were happily united in concord and friendly interchange of good offices. 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