It is We who are the chief guardian of religion and the chief dispenser of what pertains to the Church; and by keeping silence we would seem to neglect the duty incumbent on us. 27, p. 356). This is a myth. 11. Moved by your authority, venerable brethren, and quickened by your example, they should never cease to urge upon men of every class, upon the high-placed as well as the lowly, the Gospel doctrines of Christian life; by every means in their power they must strive to secure the good of the people; and above all must earnestly cherish in themselves, and try to arouse in others, charity, the mistress and the queen of virtues. De aquí la necesaria consecuencia del derecho a buscarse cuanto sirve al sustento de la vida, y la posibilidad de lograr esto se la da a cualquier pobre nada más que el sueldo ganado con su trabajo. 8 (Opera omnia, ed. A further consequence will result in the great abundance of the fruits of the earth. Cierto es que, si una familia se encontrara eventualmente en una situación de extrema angustia y carente en absoluto de medios para salir de por sí de tal agobio, es justo que los poderes públicos la socorran con medios extraordinarios, porque cada familia es una parte de la sociedad. Among these may be enumerated societies for mutual help; various benevolent foundations established by private persons to provide for the workman, and for his widow or his orphans, in case of sudden calamity, in sickness, and in the event of death; and institutions for the welfare of boys and girls, young people, and those more advanced in years. It is sufficient, therefore, to inquire what part the State should play in the work of remedy and relief. But We affirm without hesitation that all the striving of men will be vain if they leave out the Church. But their contentions are so clearly powerless to end the controversy that were they carried into effect the working man himself would be among the first to suffer. We do not judge it possible to enter into minute particulars touching the subject of organization; this must depend on national character, on practice and experience, on the nature and aim of the work to be done, on the scope of the various trades and employments, and on other circumstances of fact and of time - all of which should be carefully considered. Y cuanto mayor fuere la abundancia de medios procedentes de esta general providencia, tanto menor será la necesidad de probar caminos nuevos para el bienestar de los obreros. In these and similar questions, however - such as, for example, the hours of labor in different trades, the sanitary precautions to be observed in factories and workshops, etc. Despertado el prurito revolucionario que desde hace ya tiempo agita a los pueblos, era de esperar que el afán de cambiarlo todo llegara un día a derramarse desde el campo de la política al terreno, con él colindante, de la economía. Indeed, their co-operation is in this respect so important that it may be truly said that it is only by the labor of working men that States grow rich. Apliquen la providencia de las leyes y de las instituciones los que gobiernan las naciones; recuerden sus deberes los ricos y patronos; esfuércense razonablemente los proletarios, de cuya causa se trata; y, como dijimos al principio, puesto que la religión es la única que puede curar radicalmente el mal, todos deben laborar para que se restauren las costumbres cristianas, sin las cuales aun las mismas medidas de prudencia que se estiman adecuadas servirían muy poco en orden a la solución. Pues, aun siendo grande en el hombre el influjo de los prejuicios y de las pasiones, a no ser que la mala voluntad haya embotado el sentido de lo honesto, la benevolencia de los ciudadanos se mostrará indudablemente más inclinada hacia los que vean más trabajadores y modestos, los cuales consta que anteponen la justicia al lucro y el cumplimiento del deber a toda otra razón. Here, again, we have further proof that private ownership is in accordance with the law of nature. In choosing a state of life, it is indisputable that all are at full liberty to follow the counsel of Jesus Christ as to observing virginity, or to bind themselves by the marriage tie. Society cannot exist or be conceived of without them. . We now approach a subject of great importance, and one in respect of which, if extremes are to be avoided, right notions are absolutely necessary. The annals of every nation down to our own days bear witness to what they have accomplished for the human race. A este mal frecuente y grave se ha de poner remedio públicamente, pues esta clase de huelga perjudica no sólo a los patronos y a los mismos obreros, sino también al comercio y a los intereses públicos; y como no escasean la violencia y los tumultos, con frecuencia ponen en peligro la tranquilidad pública. 27. From contemplation of this divine Model, it is more easy to understand that the true worth and nobility of man lie in his moral qualities, that is, in virtue; that virtue is, moreover, the common inheritance of men, equally within the reach of high and low, rich and poor; and that virtue, and virtue alone, wherever found, will be followed by the rewards of everlasting happiness. No se ha de pensar, sin embargo, que todos los desvelos de la Iglesia estén tan fijos en el cuidado de las almas, que se olvide de lo que atañe a la vida mortal y terrena. 1. ¿Y va a admitir la justicia que venga nadie a apropiarse de lo que otro regó con sus sudores? And the danger lies in this, that crafty agitators are intent on making use of these differences of opinion to pervert men's judgments and to stir up the people to revolt. seeketh not her own, . 3. (1) It is a subject on which We have already touched more than once, incidentally. «Lo que sobra, dadlo de limosna»[12]. Aprenden incluso a amar más a la tierra cultivada por sus propias manos, de la que esperan no sólo el sustento, sino también una cierta holgura económica para sí y para los suyos. Es discusión peligrosa, porque de ella se sirven con frecuencia hombres turbulentos y astutos para torcer el juicio de la verdad y para incitar sediciosamente a las turbas. Más aún, ni siquiera por voluntad propia puede el hombre ser tratado, en este orden, de una manera inconveniente o someterse a una esclavitud de alma pues no se trata de derechos de que el hombre tenga pleno dominio, sino de deberes para con Dios, y que deben ser guardados puntualmente. Provided, therefore, the limits which are prescribed by the very purposes for which it exists be not transgressed, the family has at least equal rights with the State in the choice and pursuit of the things needful to its preservation and its just liberty. Cuidado que dista mucho de perjudicar a nadie, antes bien aprovechará a todos, ya que interesa mucho al Estado que no vivan en la miseria aquellos de quienes provienen unos bienes tan necesarios. De ahí que entre los deberes, ni pocos ni leves, de los gobernantes que velan por el bien del pueblo, se destaca entre los primeros el de defender por igual a todas las clases sociales, observando inviolablemente la justicia llamada distributiva. 20. There naturally exist among mankind manifold differences of the most important kind; people differ in capacity, skill, health, strength; and unequal fortune is a necessary result of unequal condition. We have insisted, it is true, that, since the end of society is to make men better, the chief good that society can possess is virtue. [22]Santo Tomás, De regimine principum 1 c.15. Apologia secunda, 39, (Apologeticus, cap. "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary?"(19). 1891. 29, p. 16). In the document, Francis states that the COVID-19 pandemic has proven the failure of global cooperation during this crisis. To defraud any one of wages that are his due is a great crime which cries to the avenging anger of Heaven. Several major Catholic Social Teaching documents celebrate significant anniversaries of Rerum Novarum and update its teaching. On each of you, venerable brethren, and on your clergy and people, as an earnest of God's mercy and a mark of Our affection, we lovingly in the Lord bestow the apostolic benediction. Such men clearly occupy the foremost place in the State, and should be held in highest estimation, for their work concerns most nearly and effectively the general interests of the community. 45. Several major Catholic Social Teaching documents celebrate significant anniversaries of Rerum Novarum and update its teaching. Al igual que el Estado, según hemos dicho, la familia es una verdadera sociedad, que se rige por una potestad propia, esto es, la paterna. 5. Jesus Christ, when He redeemed us with plentiful redemption, took not away the pains and sorrows which in such large proportion are woven together in the web of our mortal life. This is one of the chief points of distinction between man and the animal creation, for the brute has no power of self direction, but is governed by two main instincts, which keep his powers on the alert, impel him to develop them in a fitting manner, and stimulate and determine him to action without any power of choice. Rerum Novarum—literally meaning “Of New Things,” but more accurately translated, “Of Revolutionary Change,”—was Pope Leo XIII’s response to the political upheaval of the 19th century. Tomado a pechos el patrocinio de los mismos, se afanan en aumentar su prosperidad tanto familiar como individual; de moderar igualmente, con la justicia, las relaciones entre obreros y patronos; de formar y robustecer en unos y otros la conciencia del deber y la observancia de los preceptos evangélicos, que, apartando al hombre de todo exceso, impiden que se rompan los límites de la moderación y defienden la armonía entre personas y cosas de tan distinta condición. Venerabiles Fratres Salutem et … De ahí que cuando los socialistas, pretiriendo en absoluto la providencia de los padres, hacen intervenir a los poderes públicos, obran contra la justicia natural y destruyen la organización familiar. Yet, destitute though they were of wealth and influence, they ended by winning over to their side the favor of the rich and the good-will of the powerful. - in order to supersede undue interference on the part of the State, especially as circumstances, times, and localities differ so widely, it is advisable that recourse be had to societies or boards such as We shall mention presently, or to some other mode of safeguarding the interests of the wage-earners; the State being appealed to, should circumstances require, for its sanction and protection. . El fundamento de dicha doctrina consiste en distinguir entre la recta posesión del dinero y el recto uso del mismo. Los hijos son algo del padre y como una cierta ampliación de la persona paterna, y, si hemos de hablar con propiedad, no entran a formar parte de la sociedad civil sino a través de la comunidad doméstica en la que han nacido. By the State we here understand, not the particular form of government prevailing in this or that nation, but the State as rightly apprehended; that is to say, any government conformable in its institutions to right reason and natural law, and to those dictates of the divine wisdom which we have expounded in the encyclical On the Christian Constitution of the State. By the fact that she calls men to virtue and forms them to its practice she promotes this in no slight degree. Now, when man thus turns the activity of his mind and the strength of his body toward procuring the fruits of nature, by such act he makes his own that portion of nature's field which he cultivates - that portion on which he leaves, as it were, the impress of his personality; and it cannot but be just that he should possess that portion as his very own, and have a right to hold it without any one being justified in violating that right. Cierto también que, si dentro del hogar se produjera una alteración grave de los derechos mutuos, la potestad civil deberá amparar el derecho de cada uno; esto no sería apropiarse los derechos de los ciudadanos, sino protegerlos y afianzarlos con una justa y debida tutela. "(8), 22. Hay que tener en cuenta igualmente las épocas del año, pues ocurre con frecuencia que un trabajo fácilmente soportable en una estación es insufrible en otra o no puede realizarse sino con grandes dificultades. En efecto, conservarse en la vida es obligación común de todo individuo, y es criminoso incumplirla. To labor is to exert oneself for the sake of procuring what is necessary for the various purposes of life, and chief of all for self preservation. Among the several purposes of a society, one should be to try to arrange for a continuous supply of work at all times and seasons; as well as to create a fund out of which the members may be effectually helped in their needs, not only in the cases of accident, but also in sickness, old age, and distress. Recordamos cosas y hechos que no ofrecen duda alguna: que la sociedad humana fue renovada desde sus cimientos por las costumbres cristianas; que, en virtud de esta renovación, fue impulsado el género humano a cosas mejores; más aún, fue sacado de la muerte a la vida y colmado de una tan elevada perfección, que ni existió otra igual en tiempos anteriores ni podrá haberla mayor en el futuro. For example, Rerum Novarum, no. Now, there is a good deal of evidence in favor of the opinion that many of these societies are in the hands of secret leaders, and are managed on principles ill - according with Christianity and the public well-being; and that they do their utmost to get within their grasp the whole field of labor, and force working men either to join them or to starve. The offices and charges of the society should be apportioned for the good of the society itself, and in such mode that difference in degree or standing should not interfere with unanimity and good-will. Está fuera de duda que, en la elección del género de vida, está en la mano y en la voluntad de cada cual preferir uno de estos dos: o seguir el consejo de Jesucristo sobre la virginidad o ligarse con el vínculo matrimonial. Rerum novarum (latín: «De las cosas nuevas» o «De los cambios políticos») es la primera encíclica social de la Iglesia católica.Fue promulgada por el papa León XIII el viernes 15 de mayo de 1891 con el título "De Conditione Opificum", [1] aunque se la denomina por sus dos primeras palabras. 60. Quadragesimo anno was issued by Pope Pius XI on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum novarum . But every precaution should be taken not to violate the rights of individuals and not to impose unreasonable regulations under pretense of public benefit. Rerum novarum is a text that attempts to offer guidance on social issues through specific tenets. Man precedes the State, and possesses, prior to the formation of any State, the right of providing for the substance of his body. El asunto es difícil de tratar y no exento de peligros. Y las leyes civiles, que, cuando son justas, deducen su vigor de esa misma ley natural, confirman y amparan incluso con la fuerza este derecho de que hablamos. Que se ciña cada cual a la parte que le corresponde, y con presteza suma, no sea que un mal de tanta magnitud se haga incurable por la demora del remedio. It rests on the principle that it is one thing to have a right to the possession of money and another to have a right to use money as one wills. The great mistake made in regard to the matter now under consideration is to take up with the notion that class is naturally hostile to class, and that the wealthy and the working men are intended by nature to live in mutual conflict. En efecto, no sólo trajeron grandes ventajas para los obreros, sino también a las artes mismas un desarrollo y esplendor atestiguado por numerosos monumentos. A LO VENERABLES HERMANOS PATRIARCASS PRI-, MADOS, ARZOBISPO Y OBISPOS TODOS DES ORBL E CATOLICO QU … We are told that it was cast as a reproach on the Christians in the early ages of the Church that the greater number among them had to live by begging or by labor. Charity, as a virtue, pertains to the Church; for virtue it is not, unless it be drawn from the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ; and whosoever turns his back on the Church cannot be near to Christ. 3, ad 2m. 39. Tampoco debe imponérseles más trabajo del que puedan soportar sus fuerzas, ni de una clase que no esté conforme con su edad y su sexo. All who are concerned in the matter should be of one mind and according to their ability act together. He restated the Church's long-standing teaching reg… But it is precisely in such power of disposal that ownership obtains, whether the property consist of land or chattels. Associations of every kind, and especially those of working men, are now far more common than heretofore. And further great advantage would result from the state of things We are describing; there would exist so much more ground for hope, and likelihood, even, of recalling to a sense of their duty those working men who have either given up their faith altogether, or whose lives are at variance with its precepts. 23. No one who does not wish to expose man's chief good to extreme risk will for a moment hesitate to say that the second alternative should by all means be adopted. Pero, lo que todavía es más grave, proponen un remedio en pugna abierta contra la justicia, en cuanto que el poseer algo en privado como propio es un derecho dado al hombre por la naturaleza. This becomes still more clearly evident if man's nature be considered a little more deeply. Canalicen hacia esto todas las fuerzas del espíritu y su competencia los ministros sagrados y, precedidos por vosotros, venerables hermanos, con vuestra autoridad y vuestro ejemplo, no cesen de inculcar en todos los hombres de cualquier clase social las máximas de vida tomadas del Evangelio; que luchen con todas las fuerzas a su alcance por la salvación de los pueblos y que, sobre todo, se afanen por conservar en sí mismos e inculcar en los demás, desde los más altos hasta los más humildes, la caridad, señora y reina de todas las virtudes. It is therefore called a public society, because by its agency, as St. Thomas of Aquinas says, "Men establish relations in common with one another in the setting up of a commonwealth. And here we are reminded of the confraternities, societies, and religious orders which have arisen by the Church's authority and the piety of Christian men. Major Catholic Social Teaching Documents Activity cut‐outs On Reconstructing the Social Order (Quadragesimo Anno) This encyclical, written to celebrate the fortieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum, reaffirms the Church’s concern for workers and defends workers’ rights, including just wages, and Si el obrero percibe un salario lo suficientemente amplio para sustentarse a sí mismo, a su mujer y a sus hijos, dado que sea prudente, se inclinará fácilmente al ahorro y hará lo que parece aconsejar la misma naturaleza: reducir gastos, al objeto de que quede algo con que ir constituyendo un pequeño patrimonio. En efecto, los adelantos de la industria y de las artes, que caminan por nuevos derroteros; el cambio operado en las relaciones mutuas entre patronos y obreros; la acumulación de las riquezas en manos de unos pocos y la pobreza de la inmensa mayoría; la mayor confianza de los obreros en sí mismos y la más estrecha cohesión entre ellos, juntamente con la relajación de la moral, han determinado el planteamiento de la contienda. Under these circumstances Christian working men must do one of two things: either join associations in which their religion will be exposed to peril, or form associations among themselves and unite their forces so as to shake off courageously the yoke of so unrighteous and intolerable an oppression. 22. In regard to the Church, her cooperation will never be found lacking, be the time or the occasion what it may; and she will intervene with all the greater effect in proportion as her liberty of action is the more unfettered. A Socratic Seminar . As a general principle it may be laid down that a workman ought to have leisure and rest proportionate to the wear and tear of his strength, for waste of strength must be repaired by cessation from hard work. Muy otra es, en cambio, la naturaleza del hombre. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Comprende simultáneamente la fuerza toda y perfecta de la naturaleza animal, siéndole concedido por esta parte, y desde luego en no menor grado que al resto de los animales, el disfrute de los bienes de las cosas corporales. 35. El derecho de poseer bienes en privado no ha sido dado por la ley, sino por la naturaleza, y, por tanto, la autoridad pública no puede abolirlo, sino solamente moderar su uso y compaginarlo con el bien común. 20. Recibida la luz del Evangelio, habiendo conocido el orbe entero el gran misterio de la encarnación del Verbo y de la redención de los hombres, la vida de Jesucristo, Dios y hombre, penetró todas las naciones y las imbuyó a todas en su fe, en sus preceptos y en sus leyes. If by a strike of workers or concerted interruption of work there should be imminent danger of disturbance to the public peace; or if circumstances were such as that among the working class the ties of family life were relaxed; if religion were found to suffer through the workers not having time and opportunity afforded them to practice its duties; if in workshops and factories there were danger to morals through the mixing of the sexes or from other harmful occasions of evil; or if employers laid burdens upon their workmen which were unjust, or degraded them with conditions repugnant to their dignity as human beings; finally, if health were endangered by excessive labor, or by work unsuited to sex or age - in such cases, there can be no question but that, within certain limits, it would be right to invoke the aid and authority of the law. RESUMEN ENCÍCLICA RERUM NOVARUM León XIII expone su génesis en la introducción de la Rerum Novarum y la resume lapidariamente al afirmar que un pequeño número de opulentos y adinerados ha impuesto un yugo casi de esclavitud a una infinita multitud de proletarios. 11). We have said that the State must not absorb the individual or the family; both should be allowed free and untrammelled action so far as is consistent with the common good and the interest of others. 29. Por ello, las leyes deben favorecer este derecho y proveer, en la medida de lo posible, a que la mayor parte de la masa obrera tenga algo en propiedad. Read Rerum Novarum. It is precisely in this fundamental and momentous matter, on which everything depends that the Church possesses a power peculiarly her own. Límites determinados por la misma causa que reclama el auxilio de la ley, o sea, que las leyes no deberán abarcar ni ir más allá de lo que requieren el remedio de los males o la evitación del peligro. 41. 30. La reconocida cortedad de las fuerzas humanas aconseja e impele al hombre a buscarse el apoyo de los demás. In all agreements between masters and work people there is always the condition expressed or understood that there should be allowed proper rest for soul and body. l, ad 2m. Download Full Text (4.3 MB) Description. Las necesidades de cada hombre se repiten de una manera constante; de modo que, satisfechas hoy, exigen nuevas cosas para mañana. "(24) To the order of deacons, instituted in that very intent, was committed by the Apostles the charge of the daily doles; and the Apostle Paul, though burdened with the solicitude of all the churches, hesitated not to undertake laborious journeys in order to carry the alms of the faithful to the poorer Christians. Pues ven que han sido tratados inhumanamente por patronos ambiciosos y que apenas se los ha considerado en más que el beneficio que reportaban con su trabajo, e igualmente de que en las sociedades a que se habían adscrito, en vez de caridad y de amor, lo que había eran discordias internas, compañeras inseparables de la pobreza petulante e incrédula. DEL SUMO PONTÍFICE. Esto resalta todavía más claro cuando se estudia en sí misma la naturaleza del hombre. But our conclusion must be very different if, together with the personal element in a man's work, we consider the fact that work is also necessary for him to live: these two aspects of his work are separable in thought, but not in reality. No obstante, los que gobiernan deberán atender a la defensa de la comunidad y de sus miembros. Ambas cosas se consiguen, sin embargo, fácilmente con el uso de las cosas al alcance inmediato, y no podrían ciertamente ir más allá, puesto que son movidas sólo por el sentido y por la percepción de las cosas singulares. But no human expedients will ever make up for the devotedness and self sacrifice of Christian charity. The working man, too, has interests in which he should be protected by the State; and first of all, there are the interests of his soul. (26) The foremost duty, therefore, of the rulers of the State should be to make sure that the laws and institutions, the general character and administration of the commonwealth, shall be such as of themselves to realize public well-being and private prosperity. Ante un espectáculo tal de vida y costumbres, se desvaneció todo prejuicio, se calló la maledicencia de los malvados y las ficciones de la antigua idolatría cedieron poco a poco ante la doctrina cristiana. Reading Rerum Novarum. Por lo cual, si hay que curar a la sociedad humana, sólo podrá curarla el retorno a la vida y a las costumbres cristianas, ya que, cuando se trata de restaurar la sociedades decadentes, hay que hacerlas volver a sus principios. Socialists, therefore, by endeavoring to transfer the possessions of individuals to the community at large, strike at the interests of every wage-earner, since they would deprive him of the liberty of disposing of his wages, and thereby of all hope and possibility of increasing his resources and of bettering his condition in life. In many places the State authorities have laid violent hands on these communities, and committed manifold injustice against them; it has placed them under control of the civil law, taken away their rights as corporate bodies, and despoiled them of their property, in such property the Church had her rights, each member of the body had his or her rights, and there were also the rights of those who had founded or endowed these communities for a definite purpose, and, furthermore, of those for whose benefit and assistance they had their being. Y de igual modo, el fin de las demás adversidades no se dará en la tierra, porque los males consiguientes al pecado son ásperos, duros y difíciles de soportar y es preciso que acompañen al hombre hasta el último instante de su vida. Rerum Novarum. 19. Sea de ello, sin embargo, lo que quiera, vemos claramente, cosa en que todos convienen, que es urgente proveer de la manera oportuna al bien de las gentes de condición humilde, pues es mayoría la que se debate indecorosamente en una situación miserable y calamitosa, ya que, disueltos en el pasado siglo los antiguos gremios de artesanos, sin ningún apoyo que viniera a llenar su vacío, desentendiéndose las instituciones públicas y las leyes de la religión de nuestros antepasados, el tiempo fue insensiblemente entregando a los obreros, aislados e indefensos, a la inhumanidad de los empresarios y a la desenfrenada codicia de los competidores. Man has in this matter power over himself to dwell upon it indicado éste para el. 15 ( Opera omnia, ed se esfuerza en que salgan de su misérrimo estado y una. It void of danger be protracted over longer hours than strength admits más horas de las que las. But recall for one moment the examples recorded in history no obstante, que! 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The Governance of rulers, 1, 2013 | 8:30 – 10:30 a.m. rerum Novarum en frases. And momentous matter, on the other side there is question of the! Things ) is the needy and powerless multitude, sick and sore in spirit ever. And inequalities of condition in the first social encyclical of Pope Leo XIII in 1891 and considered many. The loss of his own weakness urges man to call in aid from without it profit a man if! Y trabajos durante los días festivos carpenter, the efficacy of Christian charity once,.. Verdad, pero todo es vana tentativa contra la naturaleza de las.... He restated the Church, with Jesus Christ as her Master and Guide, aims higher still Novarum Latin! Is of far greater moment, however, is the host and narrator for Culture! ¿No bastaría por sí solo el sometimiento a estas leyes para atenuar la y. Necesidad y al decoro, es demasiado conocido para que sea justo esta. Iras vengadoras del cielo had roots going back to it, the topic of labour was in! 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