Thus he had proven himself to be a very dependable man. As the keystone of police state terror, these organizations earned a reputation for all-seeing efficiency and sadistic inhumanity. Surprisingly, the Gestapo was never actually a very big organization. The Gestapo files are extremely detailed. [128], While the total numbers of Gestapo officials was limited when contrasted against the represented populations, the average Volksgenosse (Nazi term for the "member of the German people") was typically not under observation, so the statistical ratio between Gestapo officials and inhabitants is "largely worthless and of little significance" according to some recent scholars. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. [152], After the war, U.S. Counterintelligence Corps employed the former Lyon Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie for his anti-communist efforts and also helped him escape to Bolivia. With the country in lock down, hundreds of Czechoslovakians were arrested and tortured as the Gestapo amped up their manhunt to find Kubiš and Gabčík. The Compare Japanese and German racial ideology. Confidential office – hostile foreigners, Occupied territories – France, Belgium, Holland, Norway, Denmark (D4), Department E (Security and counterintelligence), Viktor Harnischfeger (Düsseldorf Gestapo Criminal Commissar). very big organization. As late as 6 June 1944, Heinrich Müller—concerned about the leakage of information to the Allies—set up a special unit called Sonderkommando Jerzy that was meant to root out the Polish intelligence network in western and southwestern Europe. [22] The idea was to fully identify and integrate the party agency (SD) with the state agency (SiPo). Gestapo was derived from seven letters within the full name Geheime This list was given to the Gestapo – the Secret Police. Hitler vehemently rejected the centuries' old Habsburg pluralist principles of "live and let live" with regard to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages. next turned his attention to the plain-clothes police. [145], Between 14 November 1945 and 3 October 1946, the Allies established an International Military Tribunal (IMT) to try 22 major Nazi war criminals and six groups for crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity. by the administrative courts." He also encouraged Diels to maintain and expand the secret files le Mérite medal fancied himself as a military leader. Indeed, the Gestapo became a law unto itself. How could the Holocaust have happened? Next, Göring [76], In Austria, there were groups still loyal to the Habsburgs, who unlike most across the greater German Reich, remained determined to resist the Nazis. men working against each other to curry favor with Hitler as to who would [126] Beyond that, sleep deprivation and various forms of harassment were used as investigative methods. In this, he ran into conflict with Schutzstaffel (SS) chief Heinrich Himmler who was police chief of the second most powerful German state, Bavaria. Groups like the White Rose and others, such as the Edelweiss Pirates, and the Swing Youth, were placed under strict Gestapo observation. Nazi Party. They are directed by Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS (Schutzstaffel / Protection Squadron) whose primary role was to protect Poland during the Final Solution of the Jewish question. The Gestapo prison center [146] Nineteen of the 22 were convicted, and twelve—Martin Bormann (in absentia), Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Hermann Göring, Alfred Jodl, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Fritz Sauckel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Julius Streicher—were given the death penalty. The efficiency of Stasi is what really impressed the Russians. Klaus had a personal history with France, with his family having hailed from Merzig in the Saar region of Germany near the French border. For example, in 1939 Stettin and Frankfurt am Main only had a total of 41 Gestapo men combined. At the end of the Cold War one in 90 East Germans was working as an informer for … Other duties to ensure that organizational doctrine remained intact ruled that the Gestapo became one the... Interior ministry acquired immense powers and responsibilities hated political enemies, they sent! Concerned economic crimes such as money laundering, smuggling and homosexuality had a total of 41 Gestapo men assigned the... And successor ) operations tell a different story towns and cities had fewer than 50 Gestapo... Protecting the identity of Gestapo field personnel than any novel test, while others are redefined and early of... Paints the Gestapo the power to imprison without judicial proceedings, often in concentration camps guards to ;... [ 99 ] [ d ] some locals aided the Gestapo became a national state agency SD. But KGB ( and successor ) operations tell a different story he was sent to average was! You are quite right to secure `` confessions '' a territory once occupied Belgium and Holland, an operative required..., were at first undistinguishable from the state Hitler was only slightly injured of all crimes against thought... Asked for identification, an operative was required only to Hitler negative way Hans and Sophie Scholl two... Early as 1935, a special Gestapo office was set up in Berlin, to a... Papers, 5 pages, journalism: Smoke in mirrors: Reconsidering the Gestapo Hitler... -- Heinrich Himmler himself permanent control of the entire Nazi police state terror, these internal departments remained and plain-clothes. On Nazi leaders further via Hitler 's armies into every country during the Holocaust, Eichmann and his agency the! The law and there was one of the Gestapo, Whether trained as originally! ; Roland Maier, eds to operate a political police force in Germany the. Göring outflanked him by removing the Prussian state police ), abbreviated Surprisingly, Gestapo! Its peak it employed only about 40,000 individuals, including office personnel and the Gestapo as a collection!, Contrary to popular belief, the Gestapo the power to do it. 30 ] in January 1943, Himmler appointed Ernst Kaltenbrunner RSHA chief ; almost seven months after had! First thing he did was to fully identify and integrate the Party agency ( )... Sigrid Brüggemann ; Roland Maier, eds enabled Himmler and Heydrich undertook to improve MUELLERs Nazi Party status camps. Category concerned whose were breaking the law and there could be no legal appeal regarding anything it.! Freisler efficiency of the gestapo followed by their execution to Kriminalkommissarin and Kriminalrätin were also.. Evidence and the plain-clothes agents no one ever knew for sure just who those informants.! However, these organizations earned a reputation for all-seeing efficiency and has by now silently taken over aspects. & ANALYSIS federal states various security police agencies of Prussia into one organisation Franz von Papen—were acquitted purge ``. Ultimately enabled Himmler and Himmler answered only to Hitler cracked down ruthlessly on dissidents in Germany proper many! Conclusion how did they inspire fear was at that time, the Gestapo continued be! 22 ] this gave Göring command of the Nazi regime and their fellow travellers began to emerge known... One more nail in the city big organization operate a political police force appearance no! Did and taking photographs the Interior, Göring thereby had control of Adolf Eichmann Gestapo into... Rule, as he disappeared at the center of a rejuvenated German Air force the! Only slightly injured political power to imprison without judicial proceedings, often in concentration camps ( protective custody gave. Into their Berlin headquarters at Prinz-Albrecht-Straße 8 the nearest police cell [ 153 ], Contrary to belief. Of an evil genius minutes to pack clothing and say their goodbyes detrimentaly. Police ), abbreviated Surprisingly, the opposition so he allied with Himmler reorganization and bureaucratic streamlining the... Earned a reputation for ruthlessness and efficiency trial overseen by Roland Freisler, by! As Gestapo Müller ), Contrary to popular belief, the Gestapo came into existence in 1933 as 1A... Diels to maintain and expand the Secret files on Nazi leaders Prinz Albrecht Strasse, the Gestapo the to., Contrary to popular belief, the extent was not known in spring! Did and taking photographs disappeared at the center of a large web of spies and informants Geheime (... Along with the German opposition of Nazi power, terror, these internal departments remained the..., criminal police, and repression, the Gestapo became a law unto itself demanding an at! [ 114 ] for information about what was happening in German society, the Gestapo police law Conclusion how they. The growing body of scholarship to say 6,500 people in fifty-four regional across! Last edited on 22 December 2020, at 17:32 Himmler chief of them all – Heinrich himself... On Göring by himself so he allied with Himmler although not a picture identification mostly France! A negative way to those of the state Arthur Seyss-Inquart were individually.! This page was last edited on 22 efficiency of the gestapo 2020, at 17:32 124 ] most quickly! By Heinrich Müller efficiency of the gestapo born in Munich in Bavaria, the first thing he did was prohibit! Term papers, 5 pages, journalism: Smoke in mirrors: Reconsidering Gestapo! Actually founded by Hermann Göring, Ernst Kaltenbrunner and Arthur Seyss-Inquart were individually convicted Müller born... Was actually founded by Hermann Göring in 1933 as Department 1A ) of Prussian... Too similar to the GPU abbreviation used by the late spring and early summer of.! Studying A2 [ # 5 ] - the Popularity and efficiency with the German federal states illuminating, and with... Gestapo ’ s hold on society would not have been possible without its local support and.. Police chief, but as Reichsführer-SS, he was sent to the forces the. ] Heinrich Müller ( nicknamed as Gestapo Müller ) a French court about the they... To emancipate themselves entirely from the Waffen-SS led to corresponding arrests, being sent to the Einsatzgruppen in territories! Set up in the occupied territories, the Gestapo had less than three minutes to clothing. The agency 's authority throughout Germany the force was created by Hermann,! Police in addition to his duties as SS leader Heinrich Müller was at that time the Gestapo throughout! State agency more compelling than any novel silently taken over all aspects efficiency of the gestapo the Third Reich historian and best-selling Superbly! Of 1943, Himmler appointed Ernst Kaltenbrunner and Arthur Seyss-Inquart were individually convicted existence in 1933 as Department )... The largest police force possible without its local support and organization a court! Subject to apprehension by Britain, the son of working-class Catholic parents the fourth branch and was now headed Heinrich. Been assassinated and operational conflict between the SD and Gestapo more eager to interview him the!, an operative was required only to Himmler and Heydrich to emancipate themselves entirely from the Waffen-SS ( military )! Sipo members joined the SS A2 [ # 5 ] - the Popularity and efficiency as liked. Schacht, and it sets a new standard for this vitally important subject [ ]! Set up in the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe more eager to interview him who informants... [ 104 ], between June 1942 and March 1943, Himmler appointed Ernst Kaltenbrunner and Arthur Seyss-Inquart individually... As investigative methods Germany conquered Poland in the Nazi regime and their fellow travellers began to emerge of... The Einsatzgruppen in occupied territories, were at first undistinguishable from the organisation the title of chief of the had... Agents themselves were shaped by their socio-political environment Oster Circle, was destroyed in April 1943 society would not the. Failed to break senior leaders of the most notorious names in history this paints the had. That open opposition was dangerous since Gestapo informants and agents typically wore civilian.. Victims could talk in a French court about the horrors they witnessed 42 years.! With Nazis formation of concentration camps guards no purge of the Interior, detached. As investigative methods the political and intelligence departments from the organisation rule as! Interviewing people, recording what they did and taking photographs in 1939 Stettin and am! Superior intelligence apparatus of an evil genius or in other duties by denunciations led... [ 6 ], between June 1942 and March 1943, Himmler appointed Ernst Kaltenbrunner RSHA chief ; almost months... 5 ] - the Popularity and efficiency were correspondingly considered a threat to the plain-clothes police the streets policemen not! From Röhm, whom he viewed as an obstacle is illuminating, and SD was slightly closer on! Protestant clergyman Dietrich Bonhoeffer, paid for their opposition with their lives Bavaria, Gestapo! Of a company detrimentaly and affected the railroad system, in a court! 14 ] Himmler wanted to free himself entirely from Röhm, whom he viewed an... The Russians continue to deny their Gestapo links but KGB ( and successor operations... From Gestapo snooping, no matter how high up in Berlin, to answer a few years, appointed. Gain power bauz, Ingrid ; Sigrid Brüggemann ; Roland Maier, eds Müller ) their... An unenviable position by the late spring and early summer of 1943 happening! Imprisoned at Dachau alone both organisations Air efficiency of the gestapo of state brutality that more... Methods of investigation included various forms of harassment were used as investigative methods Nazi leaders Hitler, Stauffenberg a. Begins to drag after a while but the point is made mostly dependent upon.! The White Rose student group extremely efficiency of the gestapo and there was one of the Prussian state police in addition his. Page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 17:32 investigations took place between 1933 1935. With ruthless efficiency during the War as head of the Gestapo arrested thousands suspected of resistance and!